Mashhad

It is located close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its population is 2, , people Now Mashhad is notably known as the resting place of the Emam Reza. A shrine was later built there to commemorate the Emam, which in turn gave rise to increasing demographical development. Today the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year. Long a center of secular as well as of religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the arts and for the sciences.

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The present-day name is the Arabicized form of Ispahan unlike Middle Persian, and similar to Spanish , New Persian does not allow initial consonant clusters such as sp [6]. In Ptolemy’s Geographia it appears as Aspadana, translating to “place of gathering for the army”. Prehistory[ edit ] The history of Isfahan can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period.

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Deniliquin A farming waste company that short-changed staff on overtime and weekend penalty rates has been forced to back pay its workers and overhaul its workplace practices. An audit found the worker was underpaid on his base rate and rates for overtime, night shift work, Sundays, Christmas Day and Good Friday. The company was also accused of failing to pay annual leave loading to workers and contravening record-keeping regulations under the Waste Management Award.

Fair Work Ombudsman Natalie James said the latest case of employee underpayments was a reminder that companies needed to ensure they paid minimum entitlements to their staff. Downes Rice Hulls is the latest company to be ordered to back pay underpaid workers following action against franchisees for Pizza Hut and the 7-Eleven convenience chain. An investigation earlier this year by Fair Work found that in an audit of 34 Pizza Hut franchisees, 24 were found to be breaching workplace laws and obligations to delivery drivers.

Downes Rice Hulls has been ordered to rectify all underpayments within 12 months and to ensure all managers undertake staff training on their workplace obligations.

Zoroastrian Places of Worship. Early Chahar

By Omid Tofighian Posted January 06, Back then, Iranians contested the re-election of former ultra-conservative president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad by taking to the streets in support of reformist candidate Mir-Hussein Mousavi, and decrying election fraud. Mr Khatami was a pivotal figure in supporting Mr Mousavi and motivating the uprisings.

While branded as a singular Green Movement, many Iranians active in expressed distinct and varied socio-political visions and aims. There were multiple issues and grievances, but the focal point was election fraud and key political players took leading roles.

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Iranian, Persian Alternative Names The term “Persian” is used as an adjective— especially pertaining to the arts—and to designate the principal language spoken in Iran. The term is often used to designate the larger cultural sphere of Iranian civilization. The terms “Iran” as the designation for the civilization, and “Iranian” as the name for the inhabitants occupying the large plateau located between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf have been in continual use for more than twenty-five hundred years.

They are related to the term “Aryan” and it is supposed that the plateau was occupied in prehistoric times by Indo-European peoples from Central Asia. Through many invasions and changes of empire, this essential designation has remained a strong identifying marker for all populations living in this region and the many neighboring territories that fell under its influence due to conquest and expansion. Ancient Greek geographers designated the territory as “Persia” after the territory of Fars where the ancient Achamenian Empire had its seat.

Today as a result of migration and conquest, people of Indo-European, Turkic, Arab, and Caucasian origin have some claim to Iranian cultural identity. Many of these peoples reside within the territory of modern Iran. Outside of Iran, those identifying with the larger civilization often prefer the appellation “Persian” to indicate their affinity with the culture rather than with the modern political state. Iran is located in southwestern Asia, largely on a high plateau situated between the Caspian Sea to the north and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.

Culture of Iran

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They are probably the first stage of a large “regime change” operation run by the U. Earlier this month the White House and the Zionist prepared for a new assault on Iran: A delegation led by Israel’s National Security Adviser met with senior American officials in the White House earlier this month for a joint discussion on strategy to counter Iran’s aggression in the Middle East, a senior U.

Another report about the meeting quotes Israeli officials on the result: We reached at understandings regarding the strategy and the policy needed to counter Iran. Our understandings deal with the overall strategy but also with concrete goals, way of action and the means which need to be used to get obtain those goals. A video of that protest in Mashad showed some 50 people chanting slogans with more bystander just milling around.

Protests against the neo- liberal economic policies of the Rohani government in Iran are justified.

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Share this article Share Iranian First Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri suggested hardline opponents of the government may be behind the demonstrations, which reportedly remained small on Friday. The Fars news agency described the demonstration in Kermanshah as a ‘call by the anti-revolution’. Iranian First Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri suggested hardline opponents of the government may be behind the demonstrations, which reportedly remained small on Friday.

Pictured is a scene from a demonstration Tehran’s deputy provincial governor Mohsen Hamedani said ‘less than 50 people’ had gathered in one of the city’s squares and several had been arrested after refusing to move on, according to the reformist newspaper Etamad.

Bazeh Khur Fire Temple, Khorasan One of the oldest Chahar-Taqi temples dating to the Parthian era BCE CE. 80 km s of Mashhad & at Robat Sefid Village’s edge.

British Museum Press 2 March Language: It traces the story of the Safavid dynasty , a period of dynamic religious and political development in Iran. Art and architecture flourished and achieved new heights of beauty and brilliance with the creation of the magnificent shrines at Ardabil, Mashhad and Qum. He also created the new capital at Isfahan his crowning artistic achievement where he rebuilt his empire surrounded by an inner circle of great artists and thinkers.

From here he encouraged foreigners to come to Iran and welcomed the opportunity to open up trading links with Europe. Review The book focuses on the reign of the fifth Safavid ruler Shah Abbas I – the dynasty ruled Iran between and and his gratifyingly transformational impact on Iran. He was able to repulse the external enemies of the kingdom, Uzbeks and Ottomans and in this way he secured its outer borders. Internally he secured stability by subduing the Qizilbash literally ‘red head’ in reference to their red turbans -supporters of Safavid dynasty but fractious- while he promoted internal cohesion through enhancing Shiism as the state religion of Iran.

He promoted trade relations with Europe, through export of luxurious textiles and carpets in exchange of silver and gold while he also expanded trade with India his principal trading partner.

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Maroochydore Uber has done it to the taxi industry, Airbnb has done to it hotels — now there are concerns that dating apps are destroying the legal brothel industry. She has blamed the downturn on a rise in the use of internet dating apps like Tinder where people can access sex for free. The coast’s other legal brothel closed in June last year and attempts to sell the once-busy brothel via auction and then private treaty were unsuccessful.

Rebecca, who has managed legal brothels in Queensland for eight years, three of those her current location, said while it was “still a good business”, they had “definitely seen a decline in the last year”. She said people still wanted to come to regulated facilities like legal brothels, but changes in the last year were “definitely having an impact”. Lure of sausage sizzle One Gold Coast brothel has been trying enticements, like free sausage sizzles, to bring in customers.

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There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year. Other ethnic groups include Kurdish and Turkmen people who have emigrated recently to the city from the North Khorasan province. There is also a significant community of non-Arabic speakers of Arabian descent who have retained a distinct Arabian culture, cuisine and religious practices.

The people from Mashhad who look East Asian are of Hazara Turkmen , or Uyghur ancestry or indeed a combination of all other ethnic groups as racial mixing has been widely practiced in this region. Among the non-Iranians, there are many immigrants from Afghanistan , Iraq and Pakistan. Afghan Population As neighbouring areas with cultural ties, [37] there has been a long history of population movements between Khorasan and Afghanistan. In many cases, they are no longer refugees but should be mentioned as locals Iran’s Ministry of Interior estimates that the total number of Afghans in Iran is now around 3 million.

Even before the political frontier between Iran and Afghanistan, the Persian-speaking inhabitants from the provinces of Herat and Farah in Afghanistan had had kinship, as well as ethnical, religious, or economic relations with the Iranian province of Khorasan especially Mashhad, where people speak a dialect akin with Harat dialect. According to Khorasan Razavi’s General Administration of Nationals and Immigrants, there are , registered Afghan citizens living in Khorasan, 95 percent of which were identified in Mashhad.

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In the Islamic Republic of Iran , sex outside of marriage is a crime, punishable by up to lashes or, in the case of adultery, death by stoning. Inside the shrine, I struck up a conversation with a year-old woman and asked whether she had ever contracted a temporary union. A man in white clerical robes standing nearby seemed to perk up, so we moved aside for privacy, sitting cross-legged on the ground. The woman, a widow, asked that I use only her first name—Robabeh.

Six years earlier, Robabeh was leaving Sheikhan when a young man introduced himself. They chatted, and Robabeh learned that he was a seminary student.

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The name Mashhad comes from Arabic , meaning a shrine or the place of martyrdom. Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam — p. A Short Gistory, Heinz Halm, p. Reza’s shrine was placed there. At the beginning of the 9th century 3rd century AH , Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad, which was situated away from Tus. There was a summer palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba, the governor of Khurasan.

In , when Harun al-Rashid , Abbasid caliph , was passing through there to quell the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania , he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba. Due to this historical event, the Dar al-Imarah was known as the Mausoleum of Haruniyyeh. Several years later in Ali al-Ridha was martyred by al-Ma’mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun. Although Mashhad is considered as the owner of cultural heritage of Tus including its figures like Nizam al-Mulk , Al-Ghazali , Ahmad Ghazali , Ferdowsi , Asadi Tusi and Shaykh Tusi , the earlier Arab geographers have correctly identified Mashhad and Tus as two separate cities, which are now located about from each other.

Ilkhanates Although some believe that after this event, the city was called Mashhad al-Ridha the place of martyrdom of al-Ridha , it seems that Mashhad, as a place-name, first appears in al-Maqdisi, i. About the middle of the 14th century, the traveller Ibn Battuta uses the expression “town of Mashhad al-Rida”. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the name Nuqan, which is still found on coins in the first half of the 14th century under the Il-Khanids, seems to have been gradually ousted by al-Mashhad or Mashhad.

Imam Reza shrine

Dating back to the early ninth century CE, the mausoleum is the most notable religious site among many splendid Islamic constructions in Shiraz where in CE Amir Ahmad took refuge from the tyranny of the Abbasid rulers on the Shia Sect. It was the 14th century CE when the shrine was spread into a mosque and a theological school, becoming a more enchanting site on the order of the pious and art-loving queen Tashi Khatun. The holy shrine includes the exquisite dome and two nice minarets with wonderful tile work as well as interior walls covered with beautiful cut glass and amazing multi-colored tiles.

The Imam Reza shrine (Persian: حرم امام رضا ‎) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver is the largest mosque in the world by area. Also contained within the complex are the Goharshad Mosque, a museum, a library, four seminaries, a cemetery, the Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, a dining hall for pilgrims.

As schools open in Iran the conditions of these facilities deserve a comprehensive review. This report is compiled of remarks made by regime officials and a long list of media reports. Is it more important to build trade towers or reconstruct our schools? As a result, once in a while we witness the destruction or severe damage of a number of schools. In comparison to Japan, Iran is 1, times more vulnerable in the face of earthquakes.

Students of this school are forced to open their umbrellas in their schools due to the poor roof conditions and leaks into the room. Official Tabnak website — December 26th, This report shows poor schools are checkered across the country in Iran in a slate of provinces. Despite all this the government of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani fails to provide a budget for reconstruction purposes.

[ENG-TRANS] From the Sister of Karbala to the Sister of Mashhad